Studies structure in the Germany
German higher education is very diverse and can be divided into higher schools, higher vocational schools and higher artistic schools. In Germany there are 350 higher schools at the moment, with 2 millions of students.
In Germany there are over 40 private schools (colleges and universities), over 40 higher schools acting by the catholic and protestant churches. They are all approved by the state, which is the guarantee of the teaching quality and diploma recognition.
The so-called Fachhochschule (higher vocational schools) offer programmes within social care, nursing and secular religious education.
In Germany there are six types of universities:
To receive the MA degree (magister atrium) students need to study three courses at the same time. The amount of classes in such a case corresponds to one course of study in Poland.
The alternative for the studies at the universities, which focus on research, are higher vocational schools (Baden-Württemberg, Saxony, Thuringia, Berlin). They offer courses in the areas such as: social science, business and administration, engineering studies.
Many employees prefer the graduates of such schools, as they have, apart from the degree, vocational practice in a given company, in comparison to their friends, graduates of the universities.
The university studies last 8 to 10 semesters and they end with the first academic degree, however medicine lasts six years. The total time of study for the bachelor and master jointly should not exceed 5 years, including 3-4 years for the bachelor and 1-2 for the master degree.
There are types of first academic titles, awarded in the German higher education system, more or less equal: Diplom, Magister and state exam (Staatsprüfung).
At the end of some of the courses of study, which are considered essential from the society's point of view, there is a state exam. It regards medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, pharmacy, food chemistry, law and education.
After some time of vocational practice, the holders of the first state exam, in particular the future lawyers and teachers, go through a second part of the training, called Vorbereitungsdienst, which ends with the second state exam. It is the second exam, which entitles to independent performance of the profession and to the status of the state clerk.
Doctorate is awarded on the basis of the work on the independent research and the passed oral exams, called Rigorosum. Oral exams may be replaced by the public defence of the thesis. The studies at Fachhochschulen last 8 semesters, including 1-2 semesters of vocational practice. Students are awarded Diploma at the end of the studies.
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